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For hiking. Cemented midsole tain routes benefit from being made of plastic or having a full-length shank. The shank length determines the. However, they are not as durable and cannot be. On difficult off-trail terrain and on snow, leather boots are still preferred. A narrow-welt a boot works well on small footholds. Lightweight trail boots: Plastic boots fig. The plastic shell the feet, reduce compression caused by crampon of the boot is waterproof, so the inner insulating straps, and facilitate kicking of steps in hard snow.
The boot's relative rigidity and its Improvements in boot technology have led to evolution of the medium- and lightweight hiking boot fig. The uppers of these boots typically are glued to the sole, eliminating the need for a welt. Check that the boots are high enough for ankle protection, that a stiff counter wraps the heel and toe, and that abrasion areas are Fig. Plastic boot: When fitting plastic boots, make the top and through the leather and seams.
Wearing sure that they do not constrict the feet. Feet swell at gaiters keeps water from running into boots from high altitude, and plastic boots are frequently used the top.
Waterproofing agents applied to the for high-altitude expeditions. Try on several pose. Boots must be clean and dry, with any you will wear on a climb. Be sure to bring along wax removed. Apply the material directly to the any orthotic devices, insoles, or other inserts you threads and stitching holes, and let it dry before plan to use.
Wear the boots in the store for several applying waterproofing to the rest of the boot. Then note whether the boots seal the welt, a desirable feature that simplifies have any uncomfortable seams or creases and boot maintenance and keeps your feet drier.
In properly fitting boots, your heels will before a trip to give the agents time to penetrate the feel firmly anchored in place while your toes will leather. The makeup of the waterproofing used on have plenty of room to wiggle and will not iam leather uppers depends on how the leather was against the toe box when you press forward.
Loose cult to seal completely, but you can make it more boots, on the other hand, cause blisters. Most people's feet swell during the course of Whatever you use on your boots, apply it the day, so consider downloading boots in the evening frequently if you expect your feet to stay dry. Given the choice between boots After using plastic boots, remove the inner that are a hair too big and oncs that are a bit too boots and clean them with mild soap and water.
You can fill the Remove any debris from inside the plastic shells to space with a thicker sock, and most boots can prevent abrasion and excessive wear between the shrink as much as a half size over time because the outcr and inner boots. Specialized footwear Boot care Depending on the trip, a climber may wear one With proper care, good boots can last several kind of boot for the approach hike, another type of years.
Keep mildew at bay by washing the boots footwear in camp, and yet another on the climb. If frequently. After washing, stuff them with a boot you can afford additional footgear and are willing tree or newspaper, and dry them in a warm not to carry the extra weight, consider these options: Heat can damage the welt and the adhesive used on boot soles.
They are less likely to cause blisters fall apart on a future trip. Boot soles usually wear and are less fatiguing to wear. The rule of thumb out long before the uppers. High-quality boots can is that I pound of weight strapped to the foot is be resoled, although this may change the original comparable to 5 on the back. However, these fit because new soles tighten the size somewhat.
Always keep your sleeping; running or tennis shoes, or sandals, for toes free enough to wiggle. Three pairs of socks comfort and to give boots a chance to dry.
They are very light, have waftled Before donning socks. Moleskin see Chapter 9 for details. Another blister fighter is foot powder sprinkled on your socks and in your booL"i. Vapor-barrier liners keep moisture next to and the foot. Socks made of wool or synthetic your foot and prevent perspiration from wetting materials can perform all these functions, while your thick socks.
They also keep your feet warmer those made of cotton cannot.
Cotton absorbs too by inhibiting the evaporation of sweat. Most climbers wear two pairs of socks. Next to If you use vapor-barrier socks, dry your feet the skin, a smooth polyester or polypropylene sock thoroughly at least once each day.
Over this goes a heavier, rougher sock made extra insulation and cushioning. Synthetic insoles of wool or synthetics. Insoles made of felt, leather, and glove, and so usually wears only one thin pair of lambskin all absorb moisture and must be removed socks. A hiker using trail shoes on a wann day when drying boots.
When trying on new boots, be keeps feet cooler by wearing just a single pair of sure to insert the insoles you intend to wear. Humans maintain body comfort by creating a when conditions become too hot. Over-exertion or microenvironment of warm air next to the skin. Clothing also must help cool you tions, add or subtract layers of clothing one by one. Three levels fonn the basis of this clothing system: However, several light, loosely fitting a layer next to the skin, insulating layers, and an layers are usually warmer than onc thick garment.
Wind stirs up tional clothing, increases your insulation. This the warm air next to the body and blows it away, a layer also transports perspiration away from your process known as convection. The stronger the skin without absorbing the moisture. The thicker fect fig.
To use this table, which illustrates the intensely chilling effect of wind, find wind speed in miles per hour in left-hand column and temperature in degrees F in top row; the intersection of these is the equivalent temperature.
The zones shown on the table indicate the danger of frostbite to any exposed flesh of an average person in good condition whose body is properly clothed for the conditions. A waterproof shell over skin. More and more fabrics are being designed to your insulating layers eliminates heat loss from do this, and these fabrics havc largely replaced conduction and convection. Wind cannot penetrate wool, coUon, and silk for use in long underwear. These qualities make down an excellent Cotton is comfortable to wear when dry but insulator for cold-weather use.
Unfortunately, absorbs many times its weight in water and loses down loses all its insulating value when wet and is its insulating qualities when wet. In it a poor insulator in wet climates. Wct it down on a hot day, and wet, as down does. Therefore they make excellent the water evaporating from the cotton will cool you insulation for coals and sleeping bags used in moist off. Although cheaper and more easily Silk readily absorbs water, but not as much as cleaned than down, they are not as warm, weigh cotton, so it dries faster.
Silk is also useful in hot more, and are less compressiblc. The useful life of weather. Wetted down, it helps cool the body synthetics is much shorter than down. Consequently, it does terproof unlcss the nylon is coated. Typically, not conduct away as much body heat and requires polyurethane coatings arc used to waterproof far less heat to dry.
Wool is also wanner when wet nylon. The thickness of thc coating is measured by because it does not collapse and therefore retains its weight per square yard, and a I -ounce coating is much of its dead-air space.
These shells are more thetic pile arc comparatively warm when wet, and durable, but most rubber-coated raingear is too they dry fast. Pile is also very light and fluffy so heavy for mountaineering.
Microporous coatings were designed to attack this Polyester, acrylic, and polypropylene fabrics problem. Moisture vapor from lating garments. The synthetic filaments in these your skin has a much smaller molecular size than fabrics are also lightweight, non-absorbent, and liquid water.
The holes in the coating are large quick drying. Rolled nated to the inside of the nylon shell. Once in liquid form, the sweat can no longer escape through the garment.
Synthetics like polypropylene and heating and building up perspiration. When water pose. The underwear rial should be washed, rinsed, dried, and treated comes in a variety of weights, and you can choose with silicone or another waterproofing spray. Apply the spray generously three times over the It's smart to download light-colored long underwear. Light colors absorh and radiate heat more slowly. Insulating layers The head is the first part of the body to uncover In hot weather a thin cotton shirt will keep you when you're overheated, and the first part to cover comfortable and serve as a first line of defense when you're cold.
The old adage says "lf your feet against sunburn. Stick to light colors. In cold are cold, put on a h at. To increase blood flow vide warmth if they get wet. Cotton sweatshirts are back to the arms and legs, you need to warm the useless once wet, so don't bring them. Shirts and sweaters should be long in the lorso Climbers usually carry several different types of so they tuck into or pull over the waist of the pants.
A bandanna can be ble heat escape. Similarly, turtleneck sweaters can draped from a hat to help shade your neck, ears, keep much of the torso's heat from escaping.
Tests and face, or it can be dipped in water and tied show that the addition of a turtleneck alone can around your head to cool you on a hot day. A increase a garment's comfort level by 5 to 1 0 lightweight rain hat is useful for warm-weather degrees Fahrenheit. Rain and wind protection Some climbers prefer anoraks, a pullover jacket On top of everything comes a shell of nylon or with no front zipper, to standard rain parkas.
The other synthetic material as an outer layer to provide fronl zipper of a standard parka helps ventilation protection from rain and wind.
The ideal shell is but can also leak, jam, or break. Another option is to carry both a lightweight, climbers. Ponchos, used by many hikers, are unlined nylon windshirt and a coated rain parka.
The - ,. Many of the qualities you should look for in a good rain parka fig. The hood should be large enough to accommodate a hat or climbing helmet and should not impair vision when you glance to the side.
Cheek that , ,. Pockets also need good rain flaps that keep water out. Snaps, clastic, or Velcro should keep the sleeve in place al the wrist. Rain parkas: The synthetic material, or wool.
Don the wind promised if a climber faced with a sudden storm pants in blustery conditions, and the rain pants has to strip to the skin to put on long underwear. It is your heavier.
Chaps protect the pant legs from necessary. Down or synthetic pile underwear can rain, while the uncovered scat is protected by a also be carned and worn as outer wear during a long parka or cagoule.
The system saves weight bivouac. Synthetic briefs are an alternative to and improves ventilation but is more likely to fail cotton. Bibs are best suited to winter snow and ice to wind and abrasion. In cool, wet climates, synthetic peditions.
They are considerably warmer than rain pile is another good choice because it retains most pants because they cover much of the torso and of its insulating qualities when wet. Pile is not keep snow from melting around the waistline, but wind resistant, but a nylon shell, integral to the they are too warm for most summer uses.
To help layer your lower-body clothing, look Gaiters for pants with full-length zippers that allow you to The boundary between your trousers and boots put the pants on while wearing boots.
The life of is protected by gaiters fig. Climbers often your pants can be extended by reinforcing the scat carry gaiters both summer and winter to prevent and knees with patches of nylon or other durable wet brush, mud, or snow from saturating pant fabrics.
A cord running under the foot By opening the leg straps and rolling down the from one side of the gaiter to the other helps the socks, you can ventilate the knickers better than gaiter hug your boot, while a drawstring at the top standard pants. Shorts are handy for hiking in the keeps the gaiter from sliding down, A tight fit rain and for stream crossings, letting you keep your around the boot is essential to prevent snow from long pants dry inside the pack.
Nylon shorts or entering underneath the gaiter. A tight fit also gym pants worn over long underwear bottoms helps prevent catching your crampon points on the make a good summertime combination when gaiters. The mittens worn inside waterproof ovcnnitts is fine for deep snows of winter, however, usually call for most non-technical climbs. Pile mitts can be wrung long gaiters that extend up over the calf. Wool is not quite as effective once wet, should be made of coated nylon.
Get inner mitts that cover the prooffbreathable fabric or an uncoated nylon so wrist. Make sure yours are terprooffbreathable nylon on the palm side. The overmitt should life of the gaiter. Neoprene straps work well in overlap the parka sleeve some 4 to 6 inches, and snow but wear quickly on rock, while heavy cord elastic or Velcro closures can cinch the overmitt survives rock better but sometimes balls up with around the forearm. Whatever you usc, be sure the gaiter strap is To prevent losing your mittens and overmitts, designed for easy replacement.
You'll find it's well welt up but leave the lug soles exposed for good worth the effort, especially when you need bare traction. Insulation built into these gaiters covers hands for snow or rock climbing, or if you take the the boots and reduces the chance of frostbite during mittens off in a high wind. Many climbers wear polypropylene glove liners or a thin pair of fingerJess gloves inside their mitts. You can download release the rope. All packs should allow you to easily make you lose your balance.
The clean, narrow profile of internal frame help maintain the pack's shape and transfer weight packs allows them to be hauled up rock pitches or to the hips are by far the most popular packs among taken through heavy brush with far fewer snags climbers and ski mountaineers. These packs allow than external frame packs. Internal frame packs are frame that is held away from the back by taut nylon. This design lets the hips-not just Here are some additional questions to ask when the shoulders and back-share in the heavy work.
This feature will these packs keep you cooler. External frame packs greatly extend its life. The while climbing or skiing? Now put it on. If it doesn't, can the stays or frame be bent so it does? The or in thick brush, does it have a smooth profile so it. Check that you have in mind? If weight between the shoulders and hips, allowing different muscle groups to share in the work. Once the pack is adjusted to your liking, check the head clearance. Can you look up if you're wearing a helmet?
Next check for Packs constructed from waterproof materials are adequate padding wherever the pack touches your not necessarily waterproof. They can leak through body. Pay particular attention to the thickness and seams, zippers, pockets, the top opening, and quality of padding used in the shoulder straps and places where the coating has worn off. Individual hip belt. Padding in the hip belt should extend plastic bags or good stuff sacks can protect the beyond the hip bone.
See that the hip belt goes contents. You can use a large plastic bag as a liner, around the top of the hip and not around the waist, storing dry items inside the liner and wet clothing because you want the bone structure of the hips to between the liner and the sides of the pack. A climbing pack should allow you to carry the Decide what capacity is right for your intended load doser to the pelvic area, the body's center of uses.
A rucksack for day climbs and lightweight rotation. This prevents the pack's weight from overnight trips usually has a capacity between shifting on the shoulders. On trails, however, the 1 , and 2, cubic inches.
Longer trips and load should be carried high and close to the back. Compass that deserve a place in almost every pack. You A compass is an essential tool of navigation and won't use every one of these items on every trip, routefinding.
Exactly how much "insurance" you should carry is a matter of debate. Flashlightlheadlamp malists argue that weighing down your pack with Headlamps fig. Waterproof flashlights are worth the bivy gear unless you plan to bivy," they argue. They sacrifice some speed but argue they will always be around tomorrow to attempt again what they failed to climb today.
The special items most climbers believe should always be with you have become known as the Ten Essentials. They are:. Map 2. Compass 3. FJashlightlheadlarnp, with spare bulbs and batteries 4. Extra food 5. Extra clothing 6. Sunglasses 7. First-aid supplies Fig. Examples of headlamps 8. Pocket knife 9. Matches, in waterproof container Few headlamps are waterproof, but some are Fire starter more water-resistant than others.
We will take downloading a small waterproof flashlight. Sew a wide a look at the Ten Essentials and at a number of length of elastic into a headband, then sew several these additional items in the sections that follow. Switches tucked away in a Chapter 4 gives details about maps, including how recessed cavity are excellent. So are rotating to interpret those all-important topographic maps. The reflector rotates so that the light to run off half as many batteries.
They are expensive. Flashlight bulbs don't last long , so carry spare bulbs in addition to spare batteries. You don't have 4. Extra food to stick with the bulb that comes with your light. If A one-day supply of extra food is a reasonable it's a vacuum bulb, you can get a brighter beam emergency stockpile in case you are delayed by with a replacement bulb filled with a gas, such as foul weather, faulty navigation, injury, or other halogen, krypton, or xenon.
These gascs allow reasons. The food should require no cooking, be filaments to bum hotter and brighter than in lightweight and easily digestible, and store well for vacuum bulbs, though they also draw more current long periods. A combination of jerky, nuts, candy, amperage and shorten battery life. Some climbers Most bulbs have their amperage requirement also bring extra cocoa, dried soup.
You can get a rough idea of source is available. For 5. The garments used during the active It's a good idea to carry bulbs drawing different portion of a climb and considered to be your basic amperages. Switch boots, underwear, trousers, shirt, sweater or pile over to high-amperage bulbs when you need a coat, hat, mitts or gloves.
The major problems with alkalines tion: For the feet, green if you want the truest color, and yellow if bring an extra pair of heavy socks; for the hands, you want visibility in overcast or foggy conditions.
In percentage of infrared, as most sunglasses do, is addition to your rain shell, carry some sort of extra added eye insurance.
It's a good sunglasses in case a pair is lost or forgotten. You strategy. Chapter 3 has details on bivouacs and can also improvise eye protection by cutting small bivy sacks. The sack protects your insulation from slits in an eye cover made of cardboard or cloth.
Normal much of the heat escaping from your body so that glasses with clip-on sunglasses can function as one the temperature of your cocoon rises. Sunglasses tively, this climber can carry two normal pairs of Eyes are particularly vulnerable to the brilliance prescription glasses plus a well-ventilated pair of of mountain skies, visible light reflecting off snow, ski goggles outlitted with a very dark lens.
The retinas of fer using contact lenses instead of glasses. Don't let cloudy conditions fool you into country conditions make it difficult to clean and leaving your eyes unprotected.
Ultraviolet rays maintain the lenses. Sunglasses should filter 95 to 7. First-aid supplies percent of the ultraviolet light. They should Don't let a first-aid kit give you a false sense of also be tinted so that only a fraction of the ambient security. It cures very few ills. Doctors say that in light is transmitted through the lens to your eyes. The door use, the lenses should have about a 20 percent best course of action is to take the steps necessary transmission rate.
Look in a mirror when trying on to avoid injury or sickness in the first place. Still, sunglasses: Commercial first-aid kits are widely makes a good emergency system. Two of the best sources of infonnation on items to include 1 0. Fire starter in a first-aid kit are Medicine for Mountaineering, Fire staners are indispensable for igniting wet by James A.
Wilkerson, M. Carline, both published by The soup, if you have a metal cup to heat it in. Carry enough bandages and High peaks are often bone dry or frozen solid, gauzes to absorb a Significant quantity of blood. A single country injury. For a climbing expedition, you may need to bottle that carries fuel for the stove. Giardiasis, a waterborne bacterial infection, is a major health concern for alpine travelers. The cyst 8. The illness takes six to every climber needs to carry one.
The tools and the inside of the casing should Several methods of water purification make be made of stainless steel. Chemical your basic tool kit. Follow directions closely. The required amount of chemical and soaking time 9. Matches increases dramatically with colder water. If you fill An emergency supply of matches, stored in a your bottle from a glacial stream, you may need to watenight container, should be carried on every place the bottle in the sun or inside your shin to trip in addition to the matches or butane lighter raise the water's temperature.
One 20 minutes. Filters with a tages of these creams is that they are messy and so pump can strain a quart of water in minutes and do difficult to remove that you may need help from a not impart any unpleasant taste to the water. A cold-cream cleanser. Reapply lip protection frequently. Sunburn prevention Insect repellent Sunlight at high altitudes has a burning capacity The wilderness is an occasional home for many times greater than at sea level, so much so people but the permanent habitat of insects.
Some that it is a threat to both comfort and health. Individuals vary widely in natural pigmentation In hot weather, covering your body with heavy and the amount of protection their exposed skin clothing may be unbearable, and insect repellents needs. There is only one rule here: Onc application of a Clothing is by far the best sun protection and is repellent with a high concentration of DEET will worth the discomfort it causes on a hot day. For glacier travel or a snowy environment.
Cover all very effective at repelling biting nies. Products exposed skin, even i f it's shaded, because reflected with ethyl-hexanediol and dimethyl phthalate are light can bum the underside of your chin and nose much more effective against black flies, deer flies, and the insides of your ears.
Some sunscreens are and gnats. Unfortunately fly repellents don't do advertised as waterproof and will protect you much to ward off mosquitoes.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever. In tick country, Actor's grease paint clown white or zinc- check clothing and hair frequently during the day. This kit will probably grow over time selves. The tick may disengage at once.
If not, allow the oil to remain in place for half an ICE AXE hour, then carefully remove the tick with tweezers, An ice axe is indispensable on snowfields and taking care to remove all body parts.
Once a tick is glaciers and on snow-covered alpine trails in spring deeply embedded, you may need a physician to and early summer. It also has great value when you remove its buried head. Chapters 5 and 12 give the your equipment. It could include wire, tape, safety details on using an ice axe.
Seasoned climbers have learned that Items in parentheses are optional, depending on using a check list is the only sure way to avoid an your own preference and the nature of the trip. The following list is a good foundation Items marked with an asterisk can be shared by for formulating your own personal check list.
Add the group. Extra clothing Gaiters 6.
Sunglasses Shorts 7. First-aid supplies Hot-weather shirt 8. Pocket knife Other 9. Matches, in waterproof container Sunscreen and lip protection Slings: C amping, like mountaineering in general, is part ecstacy, part drudgery. LeI's face it: The peaks aren't there for us, they're just there, and it's really alpine cookery.
Setting up a temporary home i n the not hard to do the things that show our respect for wilds ought to be quick work and provide cozy the places that bring us such happiness. That's why shelter, a warm bag, and good food. In fact, that's number. Grass-covered meadow above timberline: They may walk right ecosystems. A tent left on a grass-covered meadow past an idyllic spot in the forest in favor of a windy for a week can wipe out an entire growing season mountain ledge because that puts them closer to the for the covered patch.
Moving a long-term camp summit. What other reasons might there be for every few days reduces the harm to any one spot. Environmentally sound? They Let's look at camps from the standpoint of the could take years to recover from the damage of a wilderness to see which sites are least damaging to brief encampment.
From best to worst, they arc: Waterside plant life is especially Snow: The snow will melt and show no sign of delicate and water pollution is a growing problem your tenancy. A large Rock slab: Open, plant-sparse area in deep forest: This In general, you want to honestly visualize the is less ideal than the first three choices. Camp away from water,. Try to find a spot that has just the right natural slope so you won't have to You can keep dishes reasonably clean without level it or dig channels for drainage.
By taking moderate care in cleaning pots pens to be an established campsite far enough back with hot water after each meal, parties commonly from a water source, use it rather than setting up a remain healthy on week-long trips without so much new onc.
Fill From the standpoint of comfort, wind is a big pots with water as soon as they are empty and clean consideration in choosing a campsite. You will them right away or leave them to soak. Be sure to find that alpine breezes arc capricious.
Cold air, gradable product and keep it off the plant life. On heavier than warm air, flows downward during weekend trips it can be easiest to carry dishes and settled weather, following valleys and collecting in pots home dirty. Thus there is often a chill breeze Woven plastic or metal scouring pads are handy down a creek or dry wash and a pool of cold air in a and weigh next to nothing.
Teflon-coated pots are basin. Night air is often several degrees cooler near easy to clean, but of course they can be easily a river or lake than on the knolls above. Using Consider wind direction in pitching your tcnt. But alpine winds are reversible ing routine, it helps to have a large water container without warning.
One consolation of foul weather along to save yourself and the terrain from a lot of is that stonn winds arc fairly consistent. And no matter where, campfire scars are a blemish. Plastic bags can be indispensable. Keep a heavy-duty plastic bag on hand Some simple rules apply in case you do build a to carry the garbage. Keep it small. Stay there full, you can carry it out empty. Mountaineers until the fire is dead and the ashes cold. Never bury garbage or dump it fires are penniUed, because the stove fire doesn't in latrines.
The golden rule of camping: Otherwise, go or pack hung from a tree or suspended from a pole at least feet from any open water allowing for must be farther from the trce trunk and higher from maximum level around lakes , dig a hole 8 to 1 0 the ground than a bear can reach.
Watch out for inches i n diameter and n o deeper than 8 inches. Fill mice that can walk a tight line and drop down to it after use with loose soil and tamp the sod back in the food. Hanging food 4 feet from the tree trunk place. Pack out used non-biodegradable items of and 8 feet from the ground gives you a fighting personal hygiene, such as sanitary napkins, in chance against animals.
In snow, find an unobtrusive Some other tips: Keep the cooking area and toilet area, such as a clump of trees well away from food storage well away from where you sleep. Pick up any trash before it gets covered with sealed plastic bags to conceal the smell. Hiding a food cache for your party in the wilderness is generally not acceptable.
A food sack animals. When you settle in for a night in the mountains, sary on a clear night than on a cloudy one. My advice is to read this book like a textbook. Mark up the pages, add notes, write down your own ideas, and read it multiple times.
And of course, go with experienced people before you tackle dangerous climbs. No one I know has ever gone mountaineering, There are only two things that are helping me reach my goal of being able to climb mountains year round: my own motivation and Freedom of the Hills. I'm a first generation climber just trying to figure things out, and I'm beyond grateful for others who have gone to the time and effort to put something like this together.
Skip the frustration of turning to disreputable sources.
Videos and forums on the internet won't get you anywhere. Invest in this book if you're serious about getting on top of the world's high places. I'm stoked to see where it can take me. Hopefully, reading this book will be my first step a lifetime of adventure. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads.
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