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So this makes me eligible to answer your query. I have appeared twice for pre and both the times i have been able to appear in interview also. Considered a nuisance in logic design, this floating body effect can be used for data storage.
This gives 1T DRAM cells the greatest density as well as allowing easier integration with high-performance logic circuits, since they are constructed with the same silicon on insulator process technologies. Array structures[ edit ] DRAM cells are laid out in a regular rectangular, grid-like pattern to facilitate their control and access via wordlines and bitlines.
The physical layout of the DRAM cells in an array is typically designed so that two adjacent DRAM cells in a column share a single bitline contact to reduce their area. This scheme permits comparison of DRAM size over different process technology generations, as DRAM cell area scales at linear or near-linear rates over. The horizontal wire, the wordline, is connected to the gate terminal of every access transistor in its row.
The vertical bitline is connected to the source terminal of the transistors in its a column. The lengths of the wordlines and bitlines are limited. The wordline length is limited by the desired performance of the array, since propagation time of the signal that must transverse the wordline is determined by the RC time constant.
The bitline length is limited by its capacitance which increases with length , which must be kept within a range for proper sensing as DRAMs operate by sensing the charge of the capacitor released onto the bitline.
Bitline length is also limited by the amount of operating current the DRAM can draw and by how power can be dissipated, since these two characteristics are largely determined by the charging and discharging of the bitline. Bitline architecture[ edit ] Sense amplifiers are required to read the state contained in the DRAM cells.
When the access transistor is activated, the electrical charge in the capacitor is shared with the bitline. The bitline's capacitance is much greater than that of the capacitor approximately ten times. Thus, the change in bitline voltage is minute. Sense amplifiers are required to resolve the voltage differential into the levels specified by the logic signaling system. Differential sense amplifiers work by driving their outputs to opposing extremes based on the relative voltages on pairs of bitlines.
The sense amplifiers function effectively and efficient only if the capacitance and voltages of these bitline pairs are closely matched. Besides ensuring that the lengths of the bitlines and the number of attached DRAM cells attached to them are equal, two basic architectures to array design have emerged to provide for the requirements of the sense amplifiers: open and folded bitline arrays.
In these architectures, the bitlines are divided into multiple segments, and the differential sense amplifiers are placed in between bitline segments.
Because the sense amplifiers are placed between bitline segments, to route their outputs outside the array, an additional layer of interconnect placed above those used to construct the wordlines and bitlines is required. The DRAM cells that are on the edges of the array do not have adjacent segments.
Since the differential sense amplifiers require identical capacitance and bitline lengths from both segments, dummy bitline segments are provided. The advantage of the open bitline array is a smaller array area, although this advantage is slightly diminished by the dummy bitline segments. The disadvantage that caused the near disappearance of this architecture is the inherent vulnerability to noise , which affects the effectiveness of the differential sense amplifiers.
Since each bitline segment does not have any spatial relationship to the other, it is likely that noise would affect only one of the two bitline segments. Folded bitline arrays[ edit ] The folded bitline array architecture routes bitlines in pairs throughout the array. The close proximity of the paired bitlines provide superior common-mode noise rejection characteristics over open bitline arrays. This architecture is referred to as folded because it takes its basis from the open array architecture from the perspective of the circuit schematic.
The location where the bitline twists occupies additional area. To minimize area overhead, engineers select the simplest and most area-minimal twisting scheme that is able to reduce noise under the specified limit.
As process technology improves to reduce minimum feature sizes, the signal to noise problem worsens, since coupling between adjacent metal wires is inversely proportional to their pitch. The array folding and bitline twisting schemes that are used must increase in complexity in order to maintain sufficient noise reduction. Schemes that have desirable noise immunity characteristics for a minimal impact in area is the topic of current research Kenner, p.
Future array architectures[ edit ] Advances in process technology could result in open bitline array architectures being favored if it is able to offer better long-term area efficiencies; since folded array architectures require increasingly complex folding schemes to match any advance in process technology.
The relationship between process technology, array architecture, and area efficiency is an active area of research. An integrated circuit with a defective DRAM cell would be discarded.
Beginning with the 64 Kbit generation, DRAM arrays have included spare rows and columns to improve yields.